What is Personality Analysis?

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Personality Analysis is to analyse and evaluate core qualities, including reliability, determination, confidence, gentleness, etc, of an individual. It accurately measures the personality by gathering important information of that individual. The personality analysis is not only used for determining psychological problems in an individual but also for screening potential candidates for employment. It is used for various other purposes, such as to see the changes in one’s personality, to assess theories, to examine how effective therapy would be, etc. Very often, the analysis is even used for establishing competence and conducting risk assessments.

Basically, there are two different personality analysis types – self-report inventories and projective tests.

Self-report inventories are tests that are used for assessing personality. They consist of multiple-choice items and require individuals to read questions and rate how they apply to them. A very common self-report inventory is the MMPI or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. MMPI was first published in the year 1943 with 504 questions. It was updated to MMPI-2 with 567 questions in the year 1989. The MMPI was developed to help diagnose the psychological disorders but now it is also used for screening in various fields, including college, marital counselling, law enforcement, etc.

Another method for analyzing the personality is called projective testing. In this type of analysis, the individual is presented with a scenario or object and then asked to give the item’s interpretation and project his feelings. One of the common tests is the Rorschach Inkblot test. It consists of various symmetrical inkblot cards, which are presented to the test-taker. The psychologist then asks the interpretation of each card. The individual, when interprets and answers, reveals the unconscious struggles and feelings. This is very effective in measuring anxiety, psychosis and depression. There are a few other projective tests, such as the Thematic Apperception Test and Rotter Incomplete Sentence Black test. The result of any of these tests will give a personality description of an individual. This would also help psychologists to offer some advice to that individual.

There are many other personality measures with each giving unique insight into the personality of an individual. The personality analysis helps a person to know his strengths and weaknesses. This can be helpful in personal as well as professional lives. These tests also play a big role in an individual’s social interactions, thereby helping people to meet and connect with other like-minded people. Personality analysis can be used even for clarifying the diagnosis, guiding therapeutic interventions and predicting how a person will respond in various situations.

What is Recommender System?

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A recommender system aims to suggest products, services or items based on their prediction of user’s interests. It automatically recommends content on the internet to website users and readers. The system recommends to the users only those products that the users might find them interesting. It is one of the most powerful tools, which are used by online sellers for increasing sales.

In the last few years, because of Amazon, Youtube and many other giant web service providers, the recommender systems have gained a lot of popularity. In e-commerce, these systems suggest those products that would interest the buyers. And, in an online advertisement, these systems would suggest the right content to the users. The recommender systems are very important in some fields because they can drive a lot of traffic and generate huge income if they are efficiently used. These systems can also help the companies to stand out from their competitors.

The recommender systems get the required data from ratings given by the users after purchasing a product or watching a movie and even from search engine queries. Online sites such as Amazon use that data for recommending products to the users. And, music platforms such as YouTube and Netflix use the collected data for suggesting playlists and make video recommendations.

Reasons to use Recommender Systems

  • The focus of companies that use recommender systems is on increasing sales. This is done by improving customer experience and giving personalized offers.
  • Recommendations given by recommender systems speed up searches and allow users to access that content in which they are interested. The users would also get surprise offers on those products and services.
  • The recommender systems help companies to stay ahead of their rivals and increase their earnings.
  • Companies using these systems can send emails that would contain links to offers based on the receiver’s interests.
  • Once the users start receiving recommendations based on their interests, they began to trust the company. They are more likely to stay and consume more content or buy more products from that company.

Recommender system works with two types of information. One is characteristic information and another is user-item interactions. Then, there are three algorithms that are used in these systems-Content based systems that use characteristic information, collaborative filtering systems and hybrid systems.

The main aim of the recommender system is to recommend relevant items and services to the users. This can be achieved by these methods-content based and collaborative filtering systems. Both of these methods are used according to various aspects and needs. But when the recommender system is implemented successfully, the companies are sure to get results.

What is Python?

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Python is an object-oriented, high-level, interpreted language with dynamic semantics and easy syntax. This language is open source and is primarily used for app and web development. It can be used for developing even commercial applications for free. Because Python is interpreted language, the user doesn’t have to compile it to run. An interpreter program can run this language code on any type of computer. This allows the programmer to see the results as soon as the changes are made by him.

Python is easy to learn compared to other languages as the syntax of Python focuses on readability. Python code is also easy to read and translate than other high-level languages. The cost to maintain and develop the program reduces because the teams can collaboratively work on it regardless of their experience.

What can be done with Python?

Some of the main applications of Python are given below.

  • Data Analysis-You can visualize and analyze data in the form of charts using this language.
  • Web Development-Django and Flask, which are web frameworks, are based on this language. With these, the programmers can write server-side code that helps them in managing database, mapping URLs, etc.
  • Scripting-It is nothing but writing programs for automating simple tasks. Python programming language can also be used for these types of applications.
  • Machine Learning-Machine Learning is to develop a logic that a machine can easily learn and give solutions to a specific problem. Many machine learning applications can be written in Python. For instance, product recommendation in e-commerce sites such as Amazon, etc.
  • Developing Games-Python language is used even for developing games.

Main Features of Python Programming Language

  • Python can be used in many operating systems, such as Unix, Linux, Mac, Windows, etc.
  • This programming language is free to use. Anyone can distribute the software’s copy or read and modify its source code.
  • Python is a high-level programming language and thus very easy to understand and learn.
  • It is an open-source and readable programming language.
  • Python has a standard library with many functions and codes that can be used while developing a program in Python.

Python is an important programming language that is used for several purposes. Debugging errors in Python is very easy and efficient because the codes in it are compiled line-by-line. Python is widely used for processing text, solving scientific questions, saving data and displaying images and numbers. Due to this, Python’s popularity is growing rapidly.

What is IBM Watson?

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Many companies are already using IBM’s Watson to transform and grow their businesses quickly and efficiently. But what is Watson and how is it transforming individuals and companies?

IBM Watson

IBM Watson is a cognitive computing system that takes in questions expressed in natural language and then use Artificial Intelligence, Big Data and algorithms to understand them and return with an answer as close as possible. Watson was developed on IBM’s DeepQA project and now, its advanced QA capabilities are used by various enterprise customers in many applications. IBM has formed Watson’s knowledge base by providing it with many documents, including databases, dictionaries, newswire articles, encyclopedias, taxonomies and different reference materials.

Watson was originally made for answering questions on the Jeopardy, a quiz show organized in 2011. It was able to win against human competitors because it not only uses conventional computing but also three other capabilities, such as dynamic learning, hypothesis generation and natural language processing. One cannot find any other technology other than Watson with these capabilities combined.

Watson has the capability to unlock and use unstructured data that constitutes around 80 percent of the information. It knows that all the created data is not equal. It can differentiate between different types of information easily. When questions are asked, Watson collects relevant data from different sources and creates hypotheses. Then, it tests the data to get the most accurate results for that question. As IBM Watson can read and analyze from natural language, just like humans, it can make informed and context-specific decisions that we expect from a human.

IBM Watson can be seen applied to different fields, including education, medicine and retail. The success of Watson indicates that this technology will be here for a long time because of its ability to share knowledge in every field. The retail expertise of Watson extends into the fields of finance, real estate, banking and travel. Watson-based technologies can be seen replacing the services of many people, including real estate agents, bank officers and even financial advisors by using comprehensive knowledge to give detailed answers to the questions posed. Watson is also seen changing the medical industry. After tweaking its knowledge base, Watson will be able to be up-to-date with the research data and also provide the best treatment recommendations.

Very soon, Watson will disrupt many professions. This is the reason so many professionals are worried about their future. But as an entrepreneur, you will have to accept that IBM Watson offers a great opportunity to use the vast amounts of information available for increasing profits and offer amazing services to the customers.

What is Automation?

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Automation is nothing but the use of smart devices and machines, with minimal human assistance, to control the tasks and processes that are carried out by humans. It controls and monitors the production, assessment and delivery of goods as well as services. Automation helps in performing tasks that were previously done by humans or tasks that are impossible to perform. The automation aims to boost the reliability and efficiency of goods and services.

Automation is a technology that performs a process using pre-programmed commands along with the feedback control for ensuring that the instructions are properly executed. The system, which is a result of automation, is capable and ready to operate without any intervention from humans. For instance, various control systems can be used to operate equipment such as processes in industries, machinery, ovens, steering of ships and aircraft, boilers and vehicles with very less human intervention.

Automated systems are becoming more and more advanced, complex and sophisticated. Various other technologies have been developed from automation and achieved recognition of their own. For example, robotics is a branch of automation consisting of automated machines that possess human-like characteristics. The most common part of a robot that is used in industries is the mechanical arm that is programmed for doing repetitive tasks. The mechanical arm is programmed in such a way that it moves through a specific sequence of motions for performing useful tasks. Industrial robots primarily replace low-skilled workers in factories.

Automation has changed the office environment completely. Many things like documentation, filing, communication among peers and correspondence have become automated. Previously, offices had loud typewriters, large piles of papers, calculators, pens, books and other furniture. Automation and technology have played a major role in reducing them.

Because of technology, automation and AI, people have changed the way they work. Because of the Cloud, laptops, smartphone and internet, we can work whenever we want and from wherever we want. The technology has even changed the way we commute. Now, self-driving cars are everywhere and more research is underway to improve this technology. Even a professor from the University of California says that babies that are born now will never drive.

In the coming years, machines will perform any task that humans are doing right now. Automation is evolving rapidly and is used in a variety of industries such as transportation, manufacturing, healthcare, defence and utilities. It is helping them cut costs, save time and increase productivity and efficiency.

What is Augmented Reality?

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Augmented Reality is the combination of the real physical world and interactive digital elements such as haptic feedback, sensory projections and visual overlays. Various types of digital elements are added on to the smartphone using advanced technology. This creates an illusion that those holographic elements are part of the real world around you. The sensory information that the computer generates can be either an addition to the real environment or masking of the real environment.

Augmented Reality is different from Virtual Reality. In VR technology, users are immersed completely in an artificial environment that is developed using computer technology. But Augmented Reality changes the user’s surroundings by adding visual 3D objects, graphics, sound and videos to the real world. It actually adds to the reality instead of replacing it. This technology allows the users to virtually try anything on them, such as glasses or visualize how an object will look at a specific place.

AR is now easily accessible to the people worldwide because of the latest developments in this technology and globalization. AR can be best experienced on mobile devices. Even special devices such as smart glasses and head-up displays are good for experiencing Augmented Reality.

Although AR is considered as a futuristic technology, a form of AR has been there for many years. For instance, in the 1990s, the pilot in fighter aircraft would get all the information, such as direction, speed of its plane and altitude.

In the last few years, many companies have developed devices that offer Augmented Reality to users. Fluid Interfaces Group of MIT Media Labs launched SixthSense in 2009. It comprised of a smartphone, a camera, mirror and a projector. In 2013, Google developed Google Glass, which helped people to experience AR through a wearable interface.

However, smartphones and tablets are the devices through which AR gets into most of the people’s lives. For instance, the user can point their phone’s camera at the sky to get information on stars and planets that are superimposed on an image using Star Walk app from Vito Technology. A popular app called Layar displays names of nearby restaurants and stores after collecting information about the surroundings using the phone’s camera and GPS. Pokemon Go, mobile game sensation, is the best example of Augmented Technology. In this game the users have to collect the characters that would pop up virtually in their surroundings.

The phones and tablets are not the only options for Augmented Reality. Research is underway to include AR functionality in wearable devices and contact lenses too. There are many other fields such as real estate, healthcare and retail sector, where AR has been very much beneficial in the recent years.

What is a Drone?

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Drones have been in use for several years as they are helpful in many areas. But recently the demand and use of drones have sharply increased because of its application in several fields. Although the mass adoption and its usage are at the nascent stage, drones are popular in various industries when compared to other similar technological innovations.

But what is a drone and what are its applications?

A drone is an aircraft that doesn’t require a human pilot on it for navigation. Also known as an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle or UAV, it consists of an unmanned vehicle, a ground controller, a communication system between the two devices and sometimes a GPS.

From the last few years, drones have been used in various government and business organizations due to various advantages. Drones not only increase productivity and efficiency but also reduce workload and costs in production. Due to the advancement in drone technology, many commercial entities and individuals are using it for various purposes. Known for military applications, drones are now widely used in commercial, agricultural, scientific and various other applications.

Applications of Drone Technology


Drones are widely used by farmers and agriculturists as they are cheap and can effectively monitor the crops. The sensors in drones can also detect the health of the crops and help in better yield.

Aerial Photography and Video

The drones are being used for getting shots and footages that usually require big cranes and helicopters. The camera installed on drones helps the cinematographer to film sci-fi and action scenes easily.

Wildlife Monitoring

Drones help monitor the wildlife even in deep jungles, where it is difficult and risky for humans to reach. They also deter poachers, thereby protecting wildlife animals.

Cargo System

Drones are also used for delivering light-weight packages to customers. Various companies such as Amazon and DHL are favouring the option of delivery through drones. They not only save manpower but also help in reducing traffic on roads.

The drones have multiple uses, including building safety inspections, geographic mapping, storm tracking, surveillance, search and rescue operations, entertainment and much more. The drone has been beneficial to many individuals and companies as it has managed to improve their functions and operations in a big way. After seeing the results, more and more people are willing to adopt the technology for their benefits. With the technology evolving rapidly, drones will become more advanced, reliable and safe for carrying various operations. They would also become more dependable, allowing for mass adoption worldwide.

What is Virtual Reality?

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Virtual Reality is a simulated environment that is created through computers. This technology comprises of a headset, generally called VR headset, which immerses the users in a digitized environment. But the whole experience that users will feel will be like a real-life experience. The VR immerses the users into the virtual world and with the help of it the users can interact with the 3D world. It simulates the maximum number of senses, including touch, hearing, smell and vision with the help of computer technology.

The only difference between the traditional user interface and VR systems is the display technology. And, Virtual Reality’s recognizable and main component is Head Mounted Display, also called HMD. With the device mounted on the head, the user can move around freely and interact with the 3D surroundings created by the computer.

VR technology is attracting many people across the world. It is also implemented by many businesses to achieve their targets quickly. There are lots of advantages of Virtual Reality technology. When you use a VR headset, you will be able to experience good quality visualizations. VR has enhanced the watching experience and made it more enjoyable.

With people becoming busy in their work, it becomes difficult to make time for entertainment. But now these people don’t have to travel anywhere for getting their dose of entertainment. From the comfort of their homes, these people can enjoy movies to games with the VR box. This will also give them real-life experience. VR technology also helps people to explore new countries and cities without actually travelling to that place. The user can decide the place he wants and discover it using Virtual Reality.

VR is very helpful for professionals like doctors, architects and engineers. They can learn new things in a controlled environment without any disturbance using the VR. For example, doctors can learn to perform complex surgeries and risky operations without harming anyone. VR technology is also helpful in architectural designing. The designers can analyze the entire project using VR and make note of even the minute details.

The VR technology has extensive features and this is the reason it is used in various fields such as military, healthcare, entertainment and education. VR has proved useful in all the fields and it is transforming the way people participate in events. The VR technology not only gives a unique and immersive experience to the users but also improves safety and efficiency.

What is Artificial Intelligence?

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We are at the verge of a technological revolution that will change the way we work and live. From many years humans are playing an important role in innovation and development using their skills. However, due to recent technological developments, the nature of work has totally changed. In fact, around 75 million jobs by 2022 will be disrupted according to a report of the World Economic Forum. And this can be attributed to Artificial Intelligence. So, what is AI and how it will impact the nature of work and jobs in future? Let’s see in this article.

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence is a branch of computer science for developing machines that can perform human tasks more effectively and efficiently. It is a collection of technologies and concepts for maximizing the chances for achieving the goals of an individual or an organization. Artificial Intelligence mimics human intelligence using the algorithms developed for a specific purpose. The applications of Artificial Intelligence are everywhere, ranging from robots in the commercial sector to self-driving cars and machine learning.

Importance of Artificial Intelligence

Today, a large amount of data is generated outpacing the ability of humans to interpret it and make tough decisions. Artificial Intelligence not only helps in interpreting information coming from various sources but also helps in making complex decisions and solving real issues. There are many reasons why AI is important to us. Here are some of them,

  • AI will indeed displace 75 million jobs by 2022 but it will also create 133 million new jobs. AI will displace low-skilled and repetitive jobs and create high-skilled jobs in which adults will have to up-skill or re-skill to sustain in the job market.
  • Artificial Intelligence will improve healthcare across the world. It will be used in precision surgery, predictive surgeries and many other clinical operations.
  • Most of the road accidents happen because of human error. This can be avoided by the use of Artificial Intelligence. The self-driving cars have helped in reducing road accidents. The smart systems are also used for analyzing traffic conditions in many countries.

Artificial Intelligence is used for performing various tasks that are not possible by humans. The AI systems allow the companies to use large amounts of data for uncovering patterns and insights that would have not been possible by an individual in a stipulated time. With this, the companies can deliver personalized communications, identify fraudulent transactions, predict events, etc. AI can be used in all industries in various capacities to get the best results for an organization.

The Emergence of Alternative Credentials

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Recently, new and unique ways of learning skills are becoming apparent and engaging many learners. The alternative credentials like industry-recognized certificates, micro-credentials and digital badges have been considered to fill the gap between the higher education programmes and the skills that the employers search for.

Although the volume of alternative credentials is increasing, nothing is certain. Definitions and taxonomies for structuring the new credentials are not agreed. The evidence of these new credentials is also not sufficient.

working paper developed by the Higher Education Policy team of OECD aims to help policymakers of all the OECD countries in this regard by checking the research evidence, developments in the field of practice and government policies. The authors examined what are alternative credentials and their characteristics, who are the learners and why they pursue these credentials, how do employers evaluate and reward them and how governments responded to new credentials.

The working paper defines alternative credentials as “credentials that are not recognized as standalone formal educational qualifications by relevant national education authorities”. The focus of this paper is on three different types of alternative credentials. They are digital badges, micro-credentials and certificates.

To help relevant stakeholders and policymakers understand the effects of alternative credentials, this paper focuses on six main characteristics of importance. They are characteristics of providers, duration, delivery modes, assessment process, integration options and areas of focus.

The higher education programmes are provided by recognized educational private bodies or public organizations but alternative credentials are provided in collaboration with businesses, NGOs and HEIs. There are many specialized learning platforms that focus on specific occupations and professions. Many large companies are also providing in-house alternative credentials programmes to their employees. Technology firms are providing training programmes for a lot of people for many years. Big companies such as Cisco, Microsoft, Google, Amazon, IBM and others are offering alternative credential programmes that are focused on IT and emerging technologies such as cybersecurity and artificial intelligence.

Because of increasing demand for re-skilling and up-skilling and reduction in costs of training and education due to digitalization, the alternative credentials have expanded rapidly. Companies and other organizations are providing alternative credentials, which help learners learn new skills and update their old skills. Various factors like lack of standardization, companies’ unfamiliarity with the credentials and absence of validation process limit the job market impact of the alternative credentials. Governments might consider establishing frameworks for these alternative credentials programmes to provide sufficient quality assurance and to protect consumers. But the advantage of these programmes lies in pace and flexibility with which they can adapt to the growing demands of learners and employers.